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  • How To Select The Right Battery For Your Application? Part 3: Common Secondary Battery Chemistries

    Let’s take a look at the most common secondary battery chemistries available.

    1. LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

    Lithium is the lightest metal in the periodic table and has a specific capacity of 3860 mAh/g compared to Zinc at 820 mAh/g (battery capacity is what gives our devices talk time or run time). Lithium also has an electrochemical reduction potential of 3.045 V against 0.76 V for Zinc (i.e a lithium based battery provides a battery voltage of 3 V or greater). The combination of these two properties results in very high energy densities for lithium based batteries.

    While lithium metal based batteries could provide extremely high energy density, when these systems are charged there is the risk of dendritic growth which could penetrate the separator and create a short. We have all heard of the risks of battery explosions and thermal runaway from the resulting temperature rise associated with lithium battery shorting. This risk is alleviated in lithium ion batteries, where the lithium is in a non-metallic form, and lithium ions move back and forth between the anode and cathode. Lithium ion batteries trade-off energy density compared to lithium metal in order to be able to charge in a relatively stable and safe manner (although it is easy to forget this, considering the recent Samsung and other lithium ion battery explosions).

    Owing to their excellent energy density and long cycle life (over 1000 cycles) these rechargeable systems are used in a wide variety of applications such as cell phones, laptops, plug in hybrids and electric vehicles. In the most common lithium ion battery implementation, the anode is typically a graphite sheet, the cathode a lithium cobalt oxide, and the electrolyte a lithium salt in an organic solvent.

    Because lithium is highly reactive towards water, it cannot be used with aqueous electrolytes unlike Zinc. Organic electrolytes are commonly used – but these pale in conductivity compared to aqueous electrolytes like potassium hydroxide, zinc chloride etc, and limit the power output of lithium batteries (in order to get power, low battery resistance and high electrolyte conductivity are required).  Owing to the low conductivity of organic electrolytes, Li-based battery cell designs favor large surface area construction such as coin over button cells, and jellyroll construction over the bobbin type in order to minimize internal resistance and enhance power capability. In other words, cell construction has to be relied on to increase power output for lithium based batteries.

    A high cell voltage of 3.6 Volts or greater means fewer cells are needed for high voltage applications. For example, one Lithium cell can replace three NiCad or NiMH cells which have a cell voltage of 1.2 Volts. Unlike lead acid batteries, these can be deep cycled.

    Disadvantages stem from the fact that lithium is so highly reactive that special safety electronics are required. Lithium ion batteries are also subject to transportation regulations (each airline passenger is restricted to carrying 2g of metallic lithium in primary batteries or 8g of rechargeable Li-ion). Safety issues include the possibility of thermal runaway when overcharged, abused or when used outside of the operating window.   

    2. NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE BATTERIES

    Nickel metal hydride batteries use a nickel oxyhydroxide cathode, a hydrogen absorbing alloy as anode (replaces Cd in the Ni-Cd battery) and an alkaline electrolyte. They have good high power capability, but cannot compete with lithium ion in terms of energy density. This is a 1.2 V battery system. They are resilient to both overcharge and discharge and can be operated between -30 to 75 C. While lithium ion batteries have replaced this system in many consumer applications, nickel metal hydride still finds use in hybrid electric vehicles, where it has seen more than 10 years of use.  The active chemicals are also inherently safer than lithium based systems, and don’t require the use of complex battery management systems.  Nickel metal hydride batteries also compete with lithium ion on cost for applications like portable tools.

     3. LEAD ACID BATTERIES

    Lead acid batteries have low energy densities, but are widely used in automotive starter batteries because of their ability to provide high surge currents inexpensively.  No other battery system provides high power rate capability as cheaply and reliably as lead acid and this system has been in use for 140 years! No wonder this battery system finds use in applications like golf carts, forklifts, UPS vehicles, electric scooters and electric wheelchairs. Owing to their low energy density, you will never see this system used in consumer applications.

    4. NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERIES

    Nickel cadmium batteries have lost significant market share to Li ion and Nickel metal hydride batteries since the 1990s, due to the toxicity of cadmium. They provide a voltage of 1.2 V, and use an alkaline electrolyte. Their ability to provide high discharge rates made portable electronic applications practical when they first came to market.  Advantages of this system include high cycle life, wide temperature range and their relatively high abuse tolerance. However, because of the toxicity of Cadmium, these are being phased out for many consumer applications.

    BL-45A1H Battery 2300MAH/8.8Wh 3.8V/4.35V Pack for LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

    Details

    Compatible Battery Part Number:

    BL-45A1H

    Compatible Computer Models:

    LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

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  • Environmental Problems That Batteries Cause

    The increasing global demand for batteries is largely due to the rapid increase in portable power-consuming products such as cellular phones and video cameras, toys and laptop computers. Each year consumers dispose of billions of batteries, all containing toxic or corrosive materials. Some batteries contain toxic metals such as cadmium and mercury, lead and lithium, which become hazardous waste and pose threats to health and the environment if improperly disposed. Manufacturers and retailers are working continuously to reduce the environmental impact of batteries by producing designs that are more recyclable and contain fewer toxic materials. The global environmental impact of batteries is assessed in terms of four main indicators. These indicators further distinguish the impact of disposable and rechargeable batteries.

    Consumption Of Natural Resources

    Production, transportation and distribution of batteries consumes natural resources, thereby contributing to an accelerating depletion of natural resources. Rechargeable batteries consume less nonrenewable natural resources than disposable batteries because fewer rechargeable batteries are needed to provide the same amount of energy.

    Climate Change And Global Warming

    The increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface is caused by an increasing greenhouse gas effect. The manufacture and transportation of batteries emits exhaust and other pollutants into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the greenhouse effect. Per unit of energy delivered, rechargeable batteries contribute less to global warming than disposable batteries. This is because less greenhouse gas emissions are associated with the manufacture and transportation of rechargeable batteries.

    Photochemical Smog Pollution And Air Acidification

    Exhaust pollutants undergo photochemical reactions which produce toxic chemicals including ozone, other harmful gases and particulate substances. The thermal inversions associated with large cities can lead to a dangerous buildup of photochemical smog, which is known to cause human deaths. Air acidification is the accumulation of acidic substances in atmospheric particles. These particles, deposited by rain, have an impact on soil and ecosystems. Rechargeable batteries contribute less to these atmospheric effects than disposable batteries because they contribute less to air pollution.

    Ecotoxicity And Water Pollution

    Potential toxic risks are associated with emission of battery chemicals into aquatic ecosystems. Improper or careless handling of waste batteries can result in release of corrosive liquids and dissolved metals that are toxic to plants and animals. Improper disposal of batteries in landfill sites can result in the release of toxic substances into groundwater and the environment.

    Recycling

    About 90 percent of lead-acid batteries are now recycled. Reclamation companies send crushed batteries to facilities for reprocessing and manufacture into new products. Nonautomotive lead-based batteries, which are accepted by many automotive companies and waste agencies, are subject to the same recycling processes. Several reclamation companies in the U.S. now process all types of dry-cell batteries, both disposable and rechargeable, including alkaline and carbon-zinc, mercuric oxide and silver oxide, zinc-air and lithium.

    BL-45A1H Battery 2300MAH/8.8Wh 3.8V/4.35V Pack for LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

    Details

    Compatible Battery Part Number:

    BL-45A1H

    Compatible Computer Models:

    LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

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  • What Do Batteries Do to the Environment If Not Properly Recycled?

    In many ways, we live in a battery-driven society. From our cell phones, laptops and other electronic devices to children's toys and cars, modern life runs on batteries. But they're not just used in consumer goods. When storms knock out the power grid, batteries keep hospital equipment working and trains running. If you have a landline, you can still make and receive calls because batteries power the phone lines. But batteries can seriously damage the environment—and human health—if not disposed of properly.

    How Batteries Work

    Before the battery was invented, power generation required a direct connection with a source of electricity. That's because electricity cannot be stored. Batteries work by converting chemical energy into electrical energy. The opposite ends of a battery—the anode and the cathode—create an electrical circuit with the help of chemicals called electrolytes that send electrical energy to a device such as a cell phone when the device is plugged into the battery.

    Batteries and the Environment

    The exact combination and number of chemicals inside a battery vary with the type of battery, but the list includes cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, lithium and electrolytes. When thrown in the household trash, batteries end up in landfills. As the battery casing corrodes, chemicals leach into the soil and make their way into our water supply. Eventually they reach the ocean. Also, lithium in batteries reacts in a volatile way when exposed. According to Battery University, lithium can cause landfill fires that can burn underground for years. This releases toxic chemicals into the air, which increases the potential for human exposure.

    Batteries and Human Health

    According to the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, cadmium and nickel are known human carcinogens. Lead has been linked to birth defects and to neurological and developmental damage. Mercury is also highly toxic, especially in vapor form, which is why the government banned its use in batteries in 1996. Negligible amounts of mercury traceable to other materials used in the manufacture of batteries may still occur, but they don't present a threat to human health.

    How To Recycle Batteries

    Rechargeable batteries contain dangerous heavy metals and should always be recycled. New cell phones are usually packaged with mailers so that consumers can return their old phones for recycling. National recycling programs like Call2Recycle (listed in the Resource section), accept used rechargeable batteries as a public service. Lead-acid batteries, the kind used in cars, can be recycled through local or state hazardous waste programs. Most automotive supply stores will accept old car batteries to send to the proper recycling authorities. Single-use alkaline batteries used to contain large amounts of mercury, but since the 1996 federal law banning mercury in batteries, they are now considered safe to throw in the trash. It's still a good idea to recycle alkaline batteries, but since they are not considered hazardous waste it can be challenging to find recycling programs that accept them. Sometimes your local municipal recycling service will take them. Another option is to recycle them in bulk. Big Green Box (listed in the Resource section) allows you to do that.

    C21N1409 Battery 37Wh 7.6V Pack for ASUS VM490 VM490L Tablet

    Details

    Compatible Battery Part Number:

    C21N1409

    Compatible Computer Models:

    ASUS VM490L notebook

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  • How To Select The Right Battery For Your Application? Part 2: Common Primary Battery Chemistries

    SOME COMMON PRIMARY BATTERY CHEMISTRIES INCLUDE 

    a) Zinc-carbon batteries have been around for more than 100 years. These are low cost and are available in many shapes and sizes. However, they have lost market share to newer chemistries in the past few decades. They are still used in low drain intermittent use applications like remote controls, flashlights and clocks.  

    b) Alkaline Zinc batteries were invented by Lewis Urry while he was employed by Eveready Battery Company. They provide higher rate capability and improved shelf life compared to Zinc carbon batteries. Urry’s innovations included replacing the Zin can (Figure 1) by powdered Zinc, massively increasing the surface area and improving discharge rate capability. He also replaced the acidic electrolyte with KOH, further decreasing internal resistance and improving rate capability. Urry demonstrated his invention to his boss by racing two toy cars in the factory cafeteria, one with a traditional Zn-carbon D cell, and another with his new battery. The first barely moved, while the second made a few trips along the length of the cafeteria.

    Alkaline zinc cells are used in applications where the battery is used intermittently but needs to work reliably and is exposed to uncontrolled storage conditions, such as smoke alarms and watches.

    c) Zinc silver oxide batteries have high energy density, long shelf life and flat voltage discharge profiles. They are commonly used in portable and miniature electronic applications such as watches, calculators, hearing aids and toys. They use a zinc anode, a silver oxide cathode and a KOH electrolyte when high power capability is required. A NaOH electrolyte is used if longer shelf life is desired. The high cost of silver mostly limits this chemistry to small batteries, except in space and military applications where cost is less important.

    Why zinc silver oxide over lithium ion batteries for miniature electronic applications? The safety issues with pets or kids swallowing small cells that could get lodged in the esophagus presents a nightmare situation for a lithium chemistry. Further owing to the low conductivity of organic electrolytes, lithium chemistry favors larger surface area for high rate capability applications.

    d) Zinc Air Batteries are most commonly used in hearing aid applications owing to their high-energy density, ideal voltage for the application and long shelf life until activation. The battery chemistry uses a Zinc anode, a potassium hydroxide electrolyte and air as the cathode. The battery is activated by removing a sealing tab, and air is introduced into the cell. The use of air instead of traditional cathode materials such as metal oxides allows smaller and lighter batteries to be made. Disadvantages include sensitivity to the environment once batteries are activated – they have to be used up quickly.

    e) Lithium Primary Batteries - Lithium is the lightest metal in the periodic table and has a specific capacity of 3860 mAh/g compared to Zinc at 820 mAh/g. Lithium also has an electrochemical reduction potential of 3.045 V against 0.76 V for Zinc (i.e a lithium based battery provides a battery voltage of 3 V or greater). The combination of these two properties results in very high energy densities for lithium based batteries.

    However, lithium is highly reactive towards water and cannot be used with aqueous electrolytes unlike Zinc. Organic electrolytes are commonly used – but these pale in conductivity compared to aqueous electrolytes like potassium hydroxide, zinc chloride, etc. and limit the power output of lithium batteries (in order to get power, low battery resistance and high electrolyte conductivity are required). On the plus side, the lower freezing points of organic electrolytes allows them to be operated at lower temperature than aqueous electrolyte based battery systems.

    COMMON PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERIES INCLUDE

    Lithium Manganese dioxide batteries use lithium metal as the anode, and a manganese dioxide cathode. These are available in button cell, and cylindrical formats. Owing to the low conductivity of organic electrolytes, Li-MnO2 cell designs favor large surface area cell construction such as coin over button cells and jellyroll construction over the bobbin type in order to minimize internal resistance and enhance power capability.  Lithium coin cells also are operated at lower currents than Zinc silver oxide cells in order to minimize internal resistance and cell heating.

    Lithium Iron Sulfide batteries provide a higher energy density alternative to alkaline batteries at 1.5 V with superior performance at high drain rates, longer shelf life, better leak resistance, wider operating temperature range, and a reduction in weight. These cells are used in digital cameras and camcorders. Disadvantages include transportation restrictions due to the lithium metal content in the anode and the higher cost (each airline passenger is restricted to carrying 2 g of metallic lithium in primary batteries, or 8 g of rechargeable Li-ion, which amounts to 2 Lithium iron Sulfide cells). These cells have a PTC safety switch, which acts as a current limiter in case the cell overheats.

    Battery cell chemistry dictates many of the cell properties that impact battery performance, thereby making it a key consideration in battery selection. As a follow up to the primary battery cell chemistry we explored in this blog, our next post will delve into secondary battery chemistries.

    BL-45A1H Battery 2300MAH/8.8Wh 3.8V/4.35V Pack for LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

    Details

    Compatible Battery Part Number:

    BL-45A1H

    Compatible Computer Models:

    LG K10 BL-45A1H K425 K428 MS428 F670

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  • How To Select The Right Battery For Your Application? Part 1: Important Battery Metric Considerations

    The one thing to remember about battery selection is that there is no such thing as a perfect battery that works for every application. Selecting the right battery for your application is about identifying the most important battery metrics and trading these off against others. For instance, if you need a lot of power for your application, cell internal resistance needs to be minimized, and this is often done by increasing electrode surface area. But this also increases inactive components such as current collectors and conductive aid, so energy density is traded off to gain power.

    While your actual design goals on the battery may be lofty, you could have to give up some things in order to gain others when it comes to actual battery performance

    A lead acid battery works great in an automotive starter battery where it provides the required high rate capability. However, with its toxicity and low energy density it would be a terrible choice for a portable electronics application. So, in this 3-part blog series, we will look at how finding the right battery for your application is all about making the right tradeoffs. Part 1 discusses the important considerations when selecting the right battery for a consumer application. These include rechargeability, energy density, power density, shelf life, safety, form factor, cost and flexibility. Part 2 will look at how chemistry affects important battery metrics, and therefore battery selection for your application. In part 3 we will look at common secondary battery chemistries.

    SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN BATTERY SELECTION ARE:

    1. Primary vs. Secondary – One of the first choices in battery selection is to decide whether the application requires primary (single use) or secondary (rechargeable) batteries. For the most part, this is an easy decision for the designer. Applications with occasional intermittent use (such as a smoke alarm, a toy or a flashlight), and disposable applications in which charging becomes impractical warrant the use of a primary battery. Hearing aids, watches (smartwatches being an exception), greeting cards and pacemakers are good examples. If the battery is to be used continuously and for long stretches of time, such as in a laptop, a cell phone or a smartwatch a rechargeable battery is more suitable.

    Primary batteries have a much lower rate of self-discharge - an attractive feature when charging is not possible or practical before first use. Secondary batteries tend to lose energy at a higher rate. This is less important in most applications because of the ability to recharge.

    2. Energy vs. Power - The runtime of a battery is dictated by the battery capacity expressed in mAh or Ah and is the discharge current that a battery can provide over time.

    When comparing batteries of different chemistry, it is useful to look at the energy content. To obtain the energy content of a battery, multiply the battery capacity in Ah by the voltage to obtain energy in Wh. For instance, a nickel-metal hydride battery with 1.2 V, and a lithium-ion battery with 3.2 V may have the same capacity, but the higher voltage of the lithium-ion would increase the energy.

    The open circuit voltage is commonly used in energy calculations (i.e. battery voltage when not connected to a load). However, both the capacity and energy are both heavily dependent on the drain rate. Theoretical capacity is dictated only by active electrode materials (chemistry) and active mass. Yet, practical batteries achieve only a fraction of the theoretical numbers due to the presence of inactive materials and kinetic limitations, which prevent full use of active materials and buildup of discharge products on the electrodes.

    Battery manufacturers often specify capacity at a given discharge rate, temperature, and cut-off voltage. The specified capacity will depend on all three factors. When comparing manufacturer capacity ratings, make sure you look at drain rates in particular. A battery that appears to have a high capacity on a spec sheet may actually perform poorly if the current drain for the application is higher. For instance, a battery rated at 2 Ah for a 20-hour discharge cannot deliver 2 A for 1 hour, but will only provide a fraction of the capacity.

    Batteries with high power provide rapid discharge capability at high drain rates such as in power tools, or automobile starter battery applications. Typically, high power batteries have low energy densities.

    A good analogy for power versus energy is to think of a bucket with a spout. A larger bucket can hold more water and is akin to a battery with high energy. The opening or spout size from which the water leaves the bucket is akin to power – the higher the power, the higher the drain rate. To increase energy, you would typically increase the battery size (for a given chemistry), but to increase power you decrease internal resistance. Cell construction plays a huge part in obtaining batteries with high power density.

    You should be able to compare theoretical and practical energy densities for different chemistries from battery textbooks. However, because power density is so heavily dependent on battery construction you will rarely find these values listed.

    3. Voltage –  Battery operating voltage is another important consideration and is dictated by the electrode materials used. A useful battery classification here is to consider aqueous or water based batteries versus lithium based chemistries. Lead acid, Zinc carbon and Nickel metal hydride all use water based electrolytes and have nominal voltages ranging from 1.2 to 2 V. Lithium based batteries, on the other hand, use organic electrolytes and have nominal voltages of 3.2 to 4 V (both primary and secondary).

    Many electronic components operate at a minimum voltage of 3 V. The higher operating voltage of lithium based chemistries allows a single cell to be used rather than two or three aqueous based cells in series to make up the desired voltage.

    Another thing to note is that some battery chemistries such as Zinc MnO2 have a sloping discharge curve, while others have a flat profile. This influences the cutoff voltage (Fig 3).  

    4. Temperature range – Battery chemistry dictates the temperature range of the application. For instance, aqueous electrolyte based Zinc-carbon cells cannot be used below 0°C. Alkaline cells also exhibit a sharp decline in capacity at these temperatures, although less than Zinc-carbon. Lithium primary batteries with an organic electrolyte can be operated up to -40°C but with a significant drop in performance. 

    In rechargeable applications, lithium ion batteries can be charged at maximum rate only within a narrow window of about 20° to 45°C. Beyond this temperature range, lower currents/voltages need to be used, resulting in longer charging times. At temperatures below 5° or 10°C, a trickle charge may be required in order to prevent the dreaded lithium dendritic plating problem, which increases the risk of thermal runaway (we have all heard of exploding Lithium based batteries which could happen as a result of overcharging, low or high temperature charging, or short circuiting from contaminants).

    OTHER CONSIDERATIONS INCLUDE:

    5. Shelf life – This refers to how long a battery will sit in a storeroom or on a shelf before it is used. Primary batteries have much longer shelf lives than secondary. However, shelf life is generally more important for primary batteries because secondary batteries have the ability to be recharged. An exception is when recharging is not practical.

    6. Chemistry – Many of the properties listed above are dictated by cell chemistry.  We will discuss commonly available battery chemistries in the next part of this blog series.  

    7. Physical size and shape – Batteries are typically available in the following size formats: button/coin cells, cylindrical cells, prismatic cells, and pouch cells (most of them in standardized formats). 

    8. Cost – There are times when you may need to pass up a battery with better performance characteristics because the application is very cost sensitive. This is especially true for high volume disposable applications.

    9. Transportation, disposal regulations – Transportation of lithium based batteries is regulated. Disposal of certain battery chemistries is also regulated. This may be a consideration for high volume applications. 

    NB116 Battery 31.92Wh 3.8V Pack for Lenovo IdeaPad 100S 100S-11IBY 80R2 100S-80 R2

    Details

    Compatible Battery Part Number:

    5B10K37675 NB116

    Compatible Computer Models:

    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY 80R2
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY(80R2002HGE)
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY(80R2002JGE)
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY(80R2002KGE)
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY(80R2002LGE)
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-11IBY(80R200DHGE)
    Lenovo IdeaPad 100S-80 R2

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